The Passion of the Christ (also known simply as The Passion) is a 2004 American biblical drama film directed by Mel Gibson, written by Gibson and Benedict Fitzgerald, and starring Jim Caviezel as Jesus of Nazareth, Maia Morgenstern as the Virgin Mary, and Monica Bellucci as Mary Magdalene. It depicts the Passion of Jesus largely according to the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. It also draws on pious accounts such as the Friday of Sorrows along with other devotional writings, such as the reputed Marian apparitions attributed to Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich.
The film primarily covers the final twelve hours of Jesus' life, beginning with the Agony in the Garden of Gethsemane, the insomnia and grievance of the Blessed Virgin Mary, the brutal scourge and crucifixion, ending with a brief depiction of his resurrection. It was shot in Italy, and the dialogue is entirely in reconstructed Aramaic (Jewish dialect), Hebrew, and Latin.
The film has been controversial and received largely polarised reviews, with some critics calling the film a religious classic while others found the extreme violence distracting and excessive, and claimed that the film subliminally promoted antisemitism. The film grossed $612 million worldwide and was the 7th highest grossing film domestically at the end of its theatrical run. The film is currently the highest-grossing Christian film of all time and fifth highest-grossing R rated film in the United States. It received three Academy Award nominations in 2005.